DiCE clusters three large EU-funded research projects on differentiation and the dynamics of integration: EU3D, InDivEU and EU IDEA. The three Research and Innovation Actions are funded under the Horizon 2020 call GOVERNANCE-02-2018-2019 – Past, present and future of differentiation in European governance.

InDivEU logo

Integrating Diversity in the European Union

InDivEU’s main objective is to provide Europe’s policy makers with an important knowledge hub on ‘Differentiated Integration’. It aims to contribute concretely to the current debate on the ‘Future of Europe’ by re-assessing, developing and testing a range of models and scenarios for different levels of integration among EU member states. InDivEU is coordinated by the Robert Schuman Centre at the European University Institute and has 14 partner institutions.

  • Coordinators: Brigid Laffan, European University Institute & Frank Schimmelfennig, ETH Zürich
  • Time period: 1.1.2019-31.12.2021

EU3D logo

EU Differentiation, Dominance and Democracy

It is widely recognised that the EU that emerged from the financial and other recent crises is more differentiated, but it is not clear if differentiation is part of the problem or part of the solution. EU3D’s main objective is to develop a theory of differentiation that specifies the conditions under which differentiation is politically acceptable, institutionally sustainable and democratically legitimate, and the conditions under which it is not. EU3D does that through comprehensive analyses of the multilevel EU’s institutional and constitutional make-up across a wide range of policy areas.

  • Coordinator: John Erik Fossum, ARENA Centre for European Studies, University of Oslo
  • Time period: 1.2.2019-31.1.2023

EU IDEA logo

EU Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability

EU IDEA’s starting point is that differentiation is not only necessary to address the EU’s current challenges more effectively, but also desirable as long as such flexibility is compatible with the core principles of the EU’s constitutionalism and identity, sustainable in terms of governance, and acceptable to EU citizens, member states and affected third partners. EU IDEA addresses whether, how much and what form of differentiation is conducive to a more effective, cohesive and democratic EU by testing different forms of differentiated integration against the reality of policy-making in key policy areas.

  • Coordinator: Nicoletta Pirozzi, Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Time period: 1.1.2019-31.12.2021